4 edition of Role of Inflammatory Processes in Airway Hyperresponsive found in the catalog.
Role of Inflammatory Processes in Airway Hyperresponsive
by Blackwell Science
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||264|
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the hallmarks of asthma, which invariably correlates with the disease severity, and is defined as increased sensitivity and reactivity of the airways to numerous types of stimuli. Classically AHR is assessed by exposing patients to either “direct” stimuli, i.e. those that act directly on the airway smooth muscle such as histamine and methacholine. T1 - Do biophysical properties of the airway smooth muscle in culture predict airway hyperresponsiveness? AU - An, Steven S. AU - Fabry, Ben. AU - Trepat, Xavier. AU - Wang, Ning. AU - Fredberg, Jeffrey J. PY - /7/1. Y1 - /7/1. N2 - Airway hyperresponsiveness is a cardinal feature of asthma but remains largely by:
A chronic inflammatory airway disorder, asthma is marked by airway hyperresponsiveness with recurrent episodes of wheezing, coughing, tightness of the chest, and shortness of breath. Typically, these episodes are associated with airflow obstruction that may be reversed spontaneously or with treatment. Asthma affects approximately million. Inflammation• driving force behind most features of airway remodeling• Multiple cytokines, chemokines, and growth factorsreleased from both inflammatory and structural cells inthe airway tissue create a complex signalingenvironment that drives airway remodelingAl-Muhsen S,et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol ;
is now believed that airway inflammation leads to AHR (reviewed in ref. 1), airway remodeling (see article by Elias et al. in this series), and mucus hyperplasia (2, 3). Our objective in this review is to define the role of CD4 + Th2 cells in asthma and to detail the cellular and molec-ular mechanisms involved in the generation of Th2 cells. Leukotrienes (LTs), including cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs) and LTB4, are potent lipid mediators that are pivotal in the pathophysiology of asthma phenotypes. At least two receptor subtypes for CysLTs – CysLT1 and CysLT2 – have been identified. Most of the pathophysiological effects of CysLTs in asthma, including increased airway smooth muscle activity, microvascular permeability and airway mucus Cited by:
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Role of C5 in the development of airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and ongoing airway response both C5a and C5b-9 regulate the downstream inflammatory cascade, which results airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsive-ness (AHR) to various stimuli.
It. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a clinical feature of asthma and is often in proportion to the underlying severity of the disease.
To understand AHR and the mechanisms that contribute to these processes, it is helpful to divide the airway components that affect this feature of asthma into “persistent” and “variable” by: Inflammatory cells are probably the major source of NO over and above airway epithelium and in patients with asthmatic airway inflammation, the expression of NO synthases is increased.
As a consequence, elevated levels of exhaled NO are often detected in asthmatic individuals compared with matched controls (Kharitonov et al ).Cited by: 4. The tissue between the basement membrane and smooth muscle layer contains a dense microvascular network that occupies 4 to 10% of the inner wall, and that is embedded in fibrous tissue ().Thickening of the inner airway wall is a common feature of asthma, CF, BPD, and COPD (6, 11, 14, 25).The magnitude of the thickening is greatest in patients with asthma or CF ().Cited by: Inflammation is broadly defined as a nonspecific protective reaction of vascularized tissues to injury.
The classic clinical features of this phenomenon are related to an increase in blood flow in vessels (calor and rubor), an increase in vascular permeability (tumor), an infiltration of cells into tissue (tumor), and a release of materials at the site of inflammation leading to pain (dolor).Cited by: Inflammatory processes of the upper airway may alter the responsiveness of the lower airway.
For example, bronchial hyperresponsiveness may be seen in patients with allergic rhinitis. This could represent coexistent but unrecognized asthma, but also suggests that IgE-dependent inflammation may occur in the lower airway that can increase Cited by: Given this background, there is a potentially profound role for HP gas MRI in the study of airway obstruction on a functional level (so-called “Functional Lung Imaging”) across a range of different asthma phenotypes and for proposed asthma mechanisms.
This potential is further enhanced by the favorable characteristics of HP gas MRI for longitudinal imaging of lung function in pediatric and Cited by: 1. The reversible processes involved in the narrowing of the airway are airway smooth muscle contraction, hypersecretion of mucus and inflammation.
The mechanisms through which these processes affect. T1 - Upper airway inflammatory diseases and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. AU - Eggleston, Peyton A.
PY - /5. Y1 - /5. N2 - Inflammatory processes of the upper airway may alter the responsiveness of the lower airway. For example, bronchial hyperresponsiveness Cited by: Airways exposed to smoke respond with inflammatory processes.
The airway inflammation generally present in smokers causes persistent cough and phlegm production, reactive airway disease, and.
The 97th American Thoracic Society meeting proved to be an excellent meeting, providing a wealth of new information on inflammatory diseases of the airways. Once again there appeared to be an increased emphasis on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with most of the major drug companies concentrating a large part of their efforts in this by: 6.
Hyperresponsiveness is a key abnormality in asthma and deserves recognition both in the clinical presentation of asthma and its pathogenesis. Available evidence strongly suggests that inflammatory processes are important in producing this aspect of disordered airway physiology.
Pharmacologic studies have greatly increased our knowledge of mechanisms involved in hyperresponsiveness but fall Cited by: 6. Inflammation in asthma. Ashraf Abdel Baky, MD. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University. Today asthma experts consider airway inflammation to be a central feature of asthma pathogenesis and its clinical manifestations.
In fact, airway inflammation File Size: 44KB. Structural changes contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in asthma. Emerging evidence points to the involvement of c-kit + cells in lung homeostasis, although their potential role in asthma is unknown.
Our aim was to isolate c-kit + cells from normal mouse lungs and to test whether these cells can interfere with hallmarks of asthma in an animal by: 3. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma may not be a problem of too much airway smooth muscle strength.
Rather, it may be a problem of too little of the factors that oppose muscle shortening. The weight of available evidence seems to support the idea that loss of the dilating response to a deep inspiration may play a central role in this process, and that the locus of the response is within the Cited by: NF-κB is a central mediator of the priming signal of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and acts by inducing the transcriptional expression of NLRP3 and Cited by: The respiratory epithelium plays a central role in the inflammatory response in asthma and other diseases.
Methoxyphenolic compounds are purported to be effective anti-inflammatory agents, but their effects on the airway epithelium have not been well characterized.
Human airway cells were stimulated with TNF-α in the presence or absence of 4-substituted methoxyphenols and by: The potential role of PI purinergic receptors in the regulation of epithelial and endothelial function, ventilatory drive, pulmonary vascular tone and airway tone, and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory processes is discussed (Table 1).Cited by: 1.
A chronic, intermittent bronchial inflammatory disorder, also known as reactive airway disease, is: asthma.
Cigarette smoking is strongly linked to the development of. emphysema. Emphysema primarily affects which lung structure. alveoli. characterized by inflammation, infection, and bronchitis. Different forms are named for the type of dust.
Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: not just a matter of airway inﬂammation Vito Brusasco, Emanuele Crimi, Riccardo Pellegrino According to the most recent deﬁnition, bron-chial asthma is a chronic inﬂammatory disorder of the airways associated with reversible airway obstruction and increased airway responsivenessCited by:.
Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of airways that is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to a variety of stimuli.
Many cells and cellular elements play a role in the development and maintenance of asthma, particularly mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and epithelial cells.Book reviews Book reviews P. SHERWOOD BURGE Cyclooxygenase and Lipoxygenase Modulators in Lung Reactivity.
Ed. by F. Berti, S. Hurd and R.J. Hegyeli. Karger, Pp. SFr$ The study of araehidonic acid metabolism has been given renewed impetus in the last 5 years by the chemical characterization ofthe leukotrienes and the appreciation of their biological.Do inflammatory mediators influence the contribution of airway smooth muscle contraction to airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma?
Darren J. Fernandes, Richard W. Mitchell, Oren Lakser, Maria Dowell, Alastair G. Stewart, Julian Solway *Cited by: